Researchers have uncovered more information on the association between dry eye disease (DED) and depression in women. In studying women enrolled in the Sjögren's International Collaborative Clinical Alliance, investigators looked at baseline oral, ocular and rheumatologic examinations, blood and saliva collection, labial salivary gland biopsies, as well as interviews and questionnaires, including depression assessment with the Patient Health Questionnaire 9.

They found the patient-reported complaints of dry eye were associated with 1.82-fold higher odds of concurrent depression compared with those who were symptom-free. They also noted specific sensations, such as burning, were associated with higher odds of depressive symptoms compared with participants without complaints.

Most notably, they discovered the presence of DED symptoms, not the clinical signs of Sjögren’s itself, led to higher odds of depression.

Gonzales JA, Chou A, Rose-Nussbaumer JR, et al. How are ocular signs and symptoms of dry eye associated with depression in women with and without Sjögren's syndrome? Am J Ophthalmol. April 12, 2018. [Epub ahead of print].