Frequently, the optometrist is faced with very subtle findings and is forced to decide whether these represent normal variations or something that warrants an emergent workup and referral. In such cases, the most helpful element of the examination is the presence or absence of a spontaneous venous pulse (SVP).
While optometrists are fortunate to have an expanding armamentarium, artificial tears remain an integral part of the basic management strategy as a recommended first-line option. Although they do not directly address the underlying etiology of dry eye, artificial tears can effectively control symptoms and may be the primary therapeutic component for many with mild or episodic dry eye.
If we are compelled to ﬁ t the vast majority of our frequent replacement wearers in silicone hydrogel, why do we hesitate when prescribing for daily disposable wearers?
Corneal diseases, and our understanding of them, have advanced significantly over the last 15 to 20 years. One such disorder is limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Diagnosis has greatly increased with technological advancements of corneal topography/tomography and AS-OCT. This has led to the need to improve treatment options for LSCD. As optometrists, we are more familiar with non-surgical treatment options for LSCD, but it is also important for us to understand the surgical treatments and how to care for these patients postoperatively.
In recent years, the evolution of techniques and technologies has substantially improved outcomes and enabled a shift toward replacement of only the diseased layers. The different transplant types can be a bit disorienting, but understanding their indications and knowing how to perform perioperative care can make a world of difference for optometrists and their patients.