Eye doctors are fortunate to have the subject of their study readily available for visual inspection. The ocular anatomy is directly accessible for in-office examination, mostly just by using the standard battery of tests and tools you trained with in school. But this can create a deluge of visual information to process. You must have an explanation at your fingertips for every unusual lump, contour, discoloration and squiggle you see during an eye exam.

To help, Review of Optometry created the following new resource—a photo atlas of ocular diseases broad enough in scope to include conditions both commonplace and rare, benign and worrisome, chronic and acute, across the entire spectrum of eye care.

The nine optometrists featured here were instrumental in developing this atlas with us. They shared their time, expertise, patient records and, most of all, their photo libraries to create it. It’s our hope that this issue can give you a quick refresher on the clinical features of many ocular diseases and will become a handy reference guide to aid future patient care responsibilities. 

Of course, keep in mind that nearly all conditions can present in a wide variety of ways and what’s depicted here is often just one instance of many. In other words, these photos are representative, but rarely the final word.

This online version of The Photo Atlas of Ocular Disease provides you with a deeper understanding of these conditions in a few ways. First, you’ll be able to view the photos larger and in more detail than in print. Second, we’ll add to it over time, so that new conditions and alternative presentations can be included. Lastly, we will share links to articles from Review’s archives that give in-depth clinical guidance on many of the included diseases and disorders. So, if you see an intriguing photo and would like more context, just follow the links for suggested reading.

I would like to thank all the contributors who made this atlas possible. Their experience and expertise shine through in every photo.

—Jack Persico, Editor-in-Chief

Check out the conditions featured in their respective categories:

Scroll past the bios to find an index of conditions included.

Our Contributors

Photo Atlas Contributors
Click image to enlarge.


Additional photos: Aaron Bronner, OD, Greg Caldwell, OD, Paul Karpecki, OD, Stephanie Fromstein, OD, Mitch Ibach, OD, Nate Lighthizer, OD, Irving Martinez-Navé, OD, Suzanne Sherman, OD


Use the index below to jump directly to each condition.


Junctional nevus


Lentigo maligna

Seborrheic keratosis

Solar lentigo

Sebaceous gland carcinoma

Sebaceous cyst


Caruncle squamous papilloma

Melanoma of the punctum


Ecthyma contagiosum

Chalazion & hordeolum

Ocular rosacea

Eccrine cyst

Epidermal inclusion cysts

Verruca vulgaris



Cicatricial ectropion


Basal cell carcinoma

Anterior segment:

Limbal stem cell deficiency

Neurotrophic keratitis

Arcus senilis

Epithelial basement membrane dystrophy

Lisch dystrophy

Schnyder’s dystrophy

Lattice dystrophy

Granular dystrophy


Central corneal dystrophy of François

Fuchs’ endothelial corneal dystrophy

Terrien’s marginal degeneration



Mooren’s ulcer

Exposure keratopathy


Graft-vs-host disease


HSV keratouveitis

HSV keratitis

Filamentary keratitis

Peripheral ulcerative keratitis

Pseudomonas keratitis

Microbial keratitis 

Marginal keratitis

Acanthamoeba keratitis

Fusarium ulcer



Limbal dermoid

Conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasm

Pyogenic granuloma

Follicular conjunctivitis

Conjunctival cyst

Giant papillary conjunctivitis

Vernal keratoconjunctivitis

Subconjunctival hemorrhage

Scleral thinning

Gonorrhea conjunctivitis

Ocular surface squamous neoplasia

Firework injury


Amelanotic melanoma

Conjunctival melanoma

Conjunctival chemosis

Stevens-Johnson syndrome

Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis

Nevus of Ota

Iris sphincter tear


Traumatic pupil

Angle recession 

Rubeosis iridis

Keratic precipitates

Iris melanocytosis

Ectropion uvea



Central serous chorioretinopathy

Astrocytic hamartoma

CMV retinitis

Birdshot retinopathy

Coats disease

Macular telangiectasia

Lattice degeneration

Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

Tractional retinal detachment

Vitreomacular traction

Myopic tractional maculopathy

Horseshoe tear


Retinal tufts

Choroidal effusion

Macular hole

Early AMD

Intermediate AMD

Dry AMD 

Exudative AMD

Retinal angiomatous proliferation

Commotio retinae

Choroidal hemangioma


Choroidal nevus

Choroidal melanoma

Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome

Cotton wool spots

Central retinal vein occlusion

Branch retinal vein occlusion

Central retinal artery occlusion

Branch retinal artery occlusion

Cystoid macular edema

Epiretinal membrane

Hypertensive retinopathy


Intraretinal microvascular abnormalities

Venous beading

Nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy

Proliferative diabetic retinopathy

Stargardt's disease

Retinitis pigmentosa

Vitelliform dystrophy

Optic nerve:


Idiopathic intracranial hypertension

Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy

Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy

Optic disc drusen

MOG optic neuropathy

Optic neuritis

Optic nerve melanocytoma

Disc pallor


Morning glory disc